Thursday, May 21, 2020

William Golding s Lord Of The Flies Essay - 1619 Words

Karston Long Mrs. Adams English II 31 October 2016 Simon: Superior Superego Many try to make the correlation between William Golding’s 1954, allegorical novel, Lord of the Flies, and Sigmund Freud’s Psychoanalytic Criticism of the human personality. Lord of the Flies takes place on a deserted island, where a group of young boys become stranded, after a plane crash, and strive for survival and order. On this island there were numerous different personalities, many directly relating to the personalities Freud described, as there were numerous characters that encompass the id, ego, as well as the Superego. The superego is the part of the personality that represents the moral part of humans. The Superego depicts the belief of right versus wrong, and in the common representation of the devil on one shoulder, and the angel on the other the Superego is represented by an angel sitting on someone’s shoulder, telling the ego to base behavior on how the action will influence society. In Lord of the Flies the character Simon represents the Superego, as is shown numerous times throughout the novel. Simon’s giving manner, compassion, helping hand, and his introspective manner that realizes that the beast is inside of them, are quintessential examples of the Superego. By analyzing Simon through a Freudian lens, it is evident that he is the ultimate superego because he represents the conscience on the island. The Superego personality traits are best exemplified in Simon, when he helpsShow MoreRelatedWilliam Golding s Lord Of The Flies1263 Words   |  6 PagesResearch Paper: Lord of the Flies William Golding, the author of Lord of The Flies, included adults for only a brief time throughout the novel, playing only a minor role at the end. The absence of adults exemplifies how children require the structure and guidance that only parents can provide, symbolically, how nations newly freed from the British Empire’s control would be better off under English colonial power to survive and maintain order before deteriorating into anarchy. The adults of theRead MoreWilliam Golding s Lord Of The Flies752 Words   |  4 Pagespossible, so a five year old who teases others to Adolf Hitler would be classified as perpetrators of evil. Lord of the Flies is a fictional story about a group of British boys who get stranded on island. The author of the novel Lord of the Flies, William Golding, showcases Zimbardo’s ideas in his story. Zimbardo did not form his theory Through the character development of Jack and Roger, Golding illustrates the intensity of evil when one is impacted by situational forces. Before Ralph and Piggy unifiesRead MoreWilliam Golding s Lord Of The Flies1869 Words   |  8 PagesEssay Outline – Unit 11 Introductory paragraph: Topic Sentence (includes the book title and author) The novel Lord of the flies by William Golding is a type of literature that revolves around an anti-war theme. Main Points that will be discussed in the essay presented in order of weakest to strongest: 1. Lord of the flies was written during WWII and one of the manifestations is the dead man in the parachute presumably a victim of a bombed plane. 2. Faction among the group which is similar toRead MoreWilliam Golding s Lord Of The Flies1282 Words   |  6 PagesWilliam Golding, the author of Lord of The Flies, included adults for only a brief time throughout the novel, playing only a minor role at the end. The absence of adults exemplifies how children require the structure and guidance that only parents can provide, this can be seen how nations newly freed from the British Empire’s control would be better off under English colonial power to survive and maintain order before deteriorating into anarchy. The adults of the novel can be seen as the motherRead MoreWilliam Golding s Lord Of The Flies1389 Words   |  6 PagesA response to Lord Of The Flies Imagine an airplane crash. The heat of flames scorch passengers’ backs in addition to the wind burning their faces. Lucky, this crash was over water and near an island so most passengers survive, with an exception of the airplane staff and the pilot. Even though alive, many are in fits of fear and panic, and others are in shock. After hurried deliberation, a lone member of the group is elected leader in hopes that they will calm the panic, and make the hard, but necessaryRead MoreWilliam Golding s Lord Of The Flies1315 Words   |  6 PagesWilliam Golding’s novel Lord of the Flies was set somewhere on the timeline of World War Two, a war between the Axis and the Allies lasting from 1939 until 1945. Although WWII was fought between many countries in the Pacific and Europe, the main contender was Germany, led by Adolf Hitler. Hitler and his followers, the Nazis, changed the lives of everyone when they attempted to strengthen Germany and brought out all the evil and ugli ness in the world. After WWII, nothing would be able to change theRead MoreWilliam Golding s Lord Of The Flies886 Words   |  4 Pageshow to live their lives not knowing what s right or wrong. Everyone has a different opinion towards different things. Some say gun laws should be banned while some say they want a gun in their house. In Lord of the Flies by William Golding there are clear aspects of leadership shown within the characterization between Jack and Ralph. I m chief, said Ralph, because you chose me. And we were going to keep the fire going. Now you run after food- (Golding 150). There is evident conflict between theRead MoreWilliam Golding s Lord Of The Flies1672 Words   |  7 Pages The Different Social Cognition of the Similar Stories — Synthesis essay of Lord of the Flies Final Project With the development of British culture, the format of Desert Island Literature has an inevitable connection with the geographical and culture heritage of the development of British history. Generally speaking, the setting of such literature is basically around an isolated island which is far from human society. The characters usually follow a primary lifestyle so that illustrate the courageRead MoreWilliam Golding s Lord Of The Flies1745 Words   |  7 Pages1954 novel, Lord of the Flies by Nobel Prize-winner William Golding is a dystopian allegory indicative of vast aspects of the human condition. Set in the midst of a nuclear war, the text details a group of marooned British school boys as they regress to a primitive state. Free from the rules and structures of civilisation and society, the boys split into factions - some attempting to maintain order and achieve common goals; others seeking anarchy and violence. The novel is based on Golding’s experienceRead MoreWilliam Golding s Lord Of The Flies1776 Words   |  8 PagesMaybe the beast is us (Golding 85), in the novel, Lord of the Flies, by author William Golding, Golding uses the entire book as social commentary. The social aspect he focuses on is man’s ability to be evil and destructive. William Golding uses three specific literary devices to convey this idea; characterization, diction and symbolism. Lord of the Flies explains man s capacity for evil which is revealed in his inherent human nature, which he cannot control or ignore. The hidden evil within

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Differences in the Use of Physical Restraint for the...

Falls and physical restraint use are a common practice in the care of the elderly and many efforts have been made to decrease this practice. Falls and injuries associated with restraint usage are a major issue because of their adverse outcome on mortality and morbidity. Prevention of falls and injuries is the most common reason for mechanically or physically restraining the elderly in healthcare facilities (Arbesman Wright, 1999). Its use has, conversely, been examined both from an ethical perspective, since restraints can be observed as coercive and furthermore because of the absence of proof of their effectiveness in preventing falls, as well as the adverse effects associated with their use (Capezuti et al., 1989). The main purposes of this integrative review were to investigate differences in the use of physical restraints over time, to identify risk factors for falls among people 60 and older, to evaluate the effects of a restraint program on staff awareness, work environment and practice of physical/mechanical restraints and the quality of care. A mechanical restraint is a device used to inhibit free physical movement which includes limb restraints, mitts, wristlets, anklets, jackets and wheelchair restraints (Powell et al., 1989). Restraints refers to any device attached to or adjacent to a person’s body that cannot be controlled or simply removed by the person and intentionally restricts a person’s freedom. Restraints are most commonly used to ensure the safetyShow MoreRelatedLack of Exercise May Cause Falls in the Elderly1903 Words   |  8 PagesMay Cause Falls in the Elderly Problem Section Falls are a major source of death and injury in elderly people. For example, they cause 90% of hip fractures and the current cost of hip fractures in the US is estimated to be about 10 billion dollars (Kato, Izumi, Hiramatsu, Shogenji, 2006). Ensuring patient safety is one of the main reasons given for use of restraints. However, according to Jech (2006), the use of physical restraints is unlikely to prevent falls. Physical restraints, such as tie-downRead MoreGerontology and Gerontic Nursing Practice2318 Words   |  10 PagesNRS 353 Gerontology and Gerontic Nursing Practice Assignment 2: Assignment Questions Questions and Answers about Elderly People and Patients Submitted by: Fujimi Sakai Student No: 11413992 Lecturer’s Name: Christine Haley Due date: 25 January 2010 Date of submission: 25 January 2010 Introduction Health of older people has some issues which nurses should know. Older people tend to suffer some health problems, however, some people do not know about problems of older people and mayRead MoreRestraints Review Of Qualitative And Quantitative Studies1517 Words   |  7 PagesRestraints Review of Qualitative and Quantitative studies The purpose of this paper is to critique the research article, Mohler Meyer’s â€Å"Attitude of nurses towards the use of restraints in geriatric care: A systemic review of qualitative and quantitative study 2014. The incident I am going to discuss in this paper is of Mr. P., an 85-year-old man, admitted to this facility about 4 months ago. His history includes coronary heart disease, cataract, dementia, hypertension, macular degeneration andRead MoreDifference between Dementia, Delirium and Alzheimers1209 Words   |  5 PagesINTRODUCTION: Delirium refers to confusion or acute confusional state of mind. It can be caused by physical illness or mental illness .delirium is most common in elderly patients. Basically delirium is condition which results in confusion, also includes changes in behavior, thinking, attention and mood. Difference between delirium, dementia and Alzheimer’s disorder: People suffering from dementia are highly susceptible to delirium but dementia should not be confused with delirium. In dementia changesRead MoreOlder Clients Essay8017 Words   |  33 Pagescom/professional/geriatrics.html (The Merck Manual of Geriatrics, 2011) 4. . Australian Government [Department of Health Ageing],(2011) 1. Understanding the aged care environment: a) What is the difference between a hostel and a nursing home? A Hostel is for residents with low care needs and a Nursing Home offers high care for residents requiring more intensive care. b) Differentiate between nd identify the classifications of clients youRead MoreTotal Care Nursing Home s ( Tcnh ) Rehabilitation Therapy Program3864 Words   |  16 PagesDescription of Organization: Total Care Nursing Home’s (TCNH) rehabilitation therapy program is designed to produce positive outcomes in the restoration of patients’ lives by providing Physical Therapy, Occupational Therapy, and Speech Therapy. TCNH provides treatment specifically tailored to patients’ needs and capabilities. During the admission process TCNH designs a personalized treatment plan by conducting a rehabilitation therapy screening that takes into consideration each patient’s medicalRead MoreLong-Term Care and the Shortage of Nurses Essay2334 Words   |  10 Pagesreview the many aspects of long-term care problems and many challenges there are within Long-Term care. We will look at rising costs within long-Term Care, patient abuse, will look at the quality of life, shortages of nurses and demand that the elderly are putting on the medical field. The type of care that Long-Term Care had been giving to its patients and the changes within Long-Term Care. Historic Development and Current State of Health Care Delivery There have been problems within Long-TermRead MoreSocial Determinants and the Ageing Australian Population2119 Words   |  8 PagesSocial determinants refer generally to social factors, such as income inequality or social exclusion which influence health (Community Tolls Box, 2013). â€Å"The social determinants approach is underpinned by an appreciation of the broader value of health to society and the dependence of health on actions far beyond the health sector, as both problems and solutions are system-wide.† (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW), 2010). As the Australian population is ageing, the social determinantsRead MoreFall Prevention: Are bed alarms overused?5686 Words   |  23 PagesNorth Dakota Peer review provided by: Cynthia Anderson Background and Rationale Falls among any individual can cause significant trauma, often leading to an increase in mortality. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2012), one in every three adults over the age of 65 falls each year. Long-term care facilities account for many of these falls, with an average of 1.5 falls occurring per nursing home bed annually (Vu, Weintraub, Rubenstein, 2004). In 2001, the AmericanRead MoreQuality Management At Florence Nightingale2770 Words   |  12 Pagesproblems are categorized into groups: variations in services, overuse, underuse, misuse, and disparities. Geographical differences, unnecessary interventions, conservative treatment, failed safety, and race or socioeconomic differences are examples of complications with quality products and services (Stanhope Lancaster, 2010). Underuse of services is relatively considerable for the elderly. The Institute of Medicine reported â€Å"substantial underdiagnosis of conditions such as treatable inconti nence, curable

Transactional and Transformational Leadership Free Essays

Harry works in a coal mine laboratory. At the start of each shift, Harry checks the work book which his supervisor completes, where clear instructions are given as to what task is required. Generally each task listed is the same each shift, and every task has a written procedure that must be followed in order to meet Quality Assurance Standards. We will write a custom essay sample on Transactional and Transformational Leadership or any similar topic only for you Order Now At the end of each shift, Harry completes his shift report which is generally the same too. Harry has worked here for 25 years under the same supervisor. He knows the work isn’t stimulating but it pays well. The supervisor is always happy with Harry because he completes the tasks that are set, and never deviates from what is expected. Harry’s supervisor is a transactional leader – a rule follower who likes procedures with no deviations and expects nothing more than those written in the work book. Carly is a new employee at the laboratory. At the start of each shift she too checks the work book in hope that maybe something new or contrary to the norm has been written. Most days she will look for something extra to do but is often reprimanded for doing something that the next shift would do. Carly detests the supervisor, wishing the supervisor offered more. Carly dreams of a supervisor who is motivational, encouraging, one who appreciates an employee who goes above and beyond what is required and would appreciate suggested improvements to age old methods. Carly dreams of a transformational leader to provide inspiration, charisma, vision and promote intelligent thinking to an otherwise mundane regulated workplace. So what is transactional and transformational leadership and what can be expected from each style? The transactional leader works with the present cultural work environment within their organisation, following existing rules, procedures, expected outcomes and operating norms (Lindgreen, A et al. 2009). They have an exchange relationship (Erkutlu 2008) with their followers/subordinates/employees, where guidance and motivation is given to ‘their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements’ (Robbins et al. 2011, p. 342). It can take the form of contingent reward, management by exception (active and passive) and laissez-faire (Xirasagar 2008). Contingent reward refers to an exchange of rewards (whether verbal or tangible) for effort and good performance (Xirasagar 2008). Management by exception (active) is taking corrective action when a follower deviates from established rules and standards (Robbins et al. 2011). Management by exception (passive) is intervention taken by the transactional leader ‘only if standards are not met’ (Robbins et al. 2011, p. 342). A transactional leader of laissez-faire character is one who ‘abdicates responsibility’ and ‘avoids making decisions’ (Robbins et al. 2011, p. 342). As transactional leadership focuses on established norms and protocols, and ‘results in expected outcomes’ (Erkutlu 2008, p. 711), followers will not extend themselves by going ‘above and beyond the call of duty’ (Robbins et al. 2011, p. 343). In comparison, the transformational leader is ‘capable of having a profound and extraordinary effect on followers’ (Robbins et al. 2011, p. 342) through their charismatic, visionary, inspirational, intellectually stimulating characteristics and their concern for their followers (Erkutlu 2008). They are able to inspire their followers to rise above their own self-interests. Transformational leadership consists of four sub-constructs (individualised consideration, intellectual stimulation, inspirational motivation, idealised influence) which transformational leaders can use to invoke behaviour of followers that exceeds expectations ‘for the sake of the organisation’ (Robbins et al. 2011, p. 343). Individualised consideration is displayed to the follower by ‘giving personal attention’ (Robbins et al. 2011, p. 342) to their development needs, support and coaching (Erkutlu 2008). Intellectual stimulation ‘promotes intelligence, rationality and careful problem solving’ (Robbins et al. 2011, p. 342). Transformational leaders are able to demonstrate idealised influence by providing vision and a sense of mission, instilling pride and gaining respect and trust (Robbins et al. 2011) along with inspirational motivation by communicating ‘high expectations’ (Robbins et al. 2011, p. 342). Although a distinction between the two could be categorised as a difference in leadership flexibility, Robbins et al. (2011) maintains that each leadership style does not actually oppose the other; rather transformational leadership builds upon transactional leadership where levels of follower effort and performance exceed that of transactional leadership alone. However each style of leadership has its own individual strengths and weaknesses. Transformational leadership appears to be heralded as the superior leadership style; although transactional leadership does have its strengths. As ‘transactional leadership results in expected outcomes’ (Erkutlu 2008, p. 711), it is effective in organisations where the desired outcome is measured against ‘clear and precise financial measures, such as revenues per customer segment or the dollar volume of cross-selling’ (Lindgreen et al.2009, p. 26). Research conducted by Liu et al. (2011) has found that in occupations of low emotional labour, transactional leadership has made a positive contribution to team innovation. Whilst Wells Peachey (2011, p. 5) have found that there is a negative relationship ‘between transactional leadership and voluntary organizational turnover intentions’. The application of equity theory’s procedural justice (‘the perceived fairness of the process used to determine the distribution of rewards’ (Robbins et al. 2011, p.191) and distributive justice (‘perceived fairness of the amount and allocation of rewards among individuals’ (Robbins et al. 2011, p. 191) may explain this negative relationship (Wells Peachey 2011). Conversely, transactional leadership is not without its weaknesses. Subordinates of transactional leaders may feel a lower sense of organisation commitment and job satisfaction or commit sabotage against the organisation (Erkutlu 2008). As transactional leadership relies upon defined outcomes with leaders possibly dealing with deviations from the norm ‘with harsh criticisms’ (Liu et al.2010, p. 284), subordinate performance beyond what the leader has requested should not be expected; nor the discovery of new methods of problem solving as subordinates continue using tried and tested solutions ‘for fear of reproach’ (Liu et al. 2010, p. 284). Innovation amongst employees employed in high emotional labour positions is also likely to be depressed under a transactional leader (Liu et al. 2010). Transactional leadership doesn’t allow for followers’ self-actualisation needs to be met; therefore followers may not reach their full ‘potential and self-fulfilment’ (Robbins et al.2011, p. 177). Where transactional leadership has clear weaknesses in respect of followers performance, transformational leadership builds upon this and bolsters followers’ willingness to perform above what is required. Transformational leadership can be thought of what transactional leadership is not. Transformational leaders are acutely aware of the organisations present culture but have a definite vision for the future. They enable this vision by changing the fundamental ‘values, goals, and aspirations of followers’ (Lindgreen et al. 2009, p.15) as the followers embrace the leader’s values. The result is that the followers perform their respective duties not because they expect to be rewarded, but because it is in agreement with their new found values (Lindgreen et al. 2009). By strategically using positive emotions, the leader is able to encourage ‘optimism and positive approaches to group tasks’ (Mitchell Boyle 2009, p. 463). Followers of transformational leadership experience heightened motivation through their leaders’ inspirational motivation and individualised consideration. Mitchell Boyle’s (2009, p.462) research states that this ‘increases their cognitive flexibility to accept new ideas and comments from others’. Transformational leadership has proven advantageous where customer relationship development is important, for example formal customer introductions and personal selling (Lindgreen et al. 2009). Research conducted by Camps Rodriguez (2011) established that employees working under a transformational leader within an organisation that fostered employee learning and skill improvement did not drive the follower to seek employment elsewhere because of their increased skill set. ‘On the contrary, they see this as a commitment to the employer that has trusted and invested in them’ (Camps Rodriguez 2011, p. 437). Although flaunted as the preferred leadership style in comparison to transactional leadership, there are weaknesses of transformational leadership. The charismatic elements of transformational leaders are difficult to reproduce if not naturally present in the personality of the leader. Therefore, organisations seeking applicants to lead in a transformational fashion are instantly subjected to a limited pool of suitable applicants (Muijs 2011). Even when the applicant is of strong transformational personality, a poor organisation fit will fail the applicant. So too will organisational structures that impede ‘the extent to which leaders can be truly transformational’ (Muijs 2011, p. 50). Over zealous transformational leaders can also incite passive resistance from subordinates. In this situation, the subordinates will simply wait for the leader to ‘move on’ (Muijs 2011, p. 51). This type of resistance is prevalent in organisations that have ‘rapid management turnover’ (Muijs 2011, p.51). Transactional and transformational leadership are two contemporary styles of leadership that have their own strengths and weaknesses. Transactional leadership focuses on providing followers clarified tasks requirements in order to achieve desired outcomes, whereas transformational leadership involves the ability of the leader to motivate, inspire, influence and consider their followers in order for the follower to take on the leader’s vision and perform above and beyond what is expected. Transactional leadership is effective in organisations where the desired outcome is definitive however is not conductive in promoting innovation amongst high emotional labour employees or allowing for self-actualisation needs to be met. Transformational leadership is effective in empowering followers and producing results such as employees performing above and beyond what is required. However it can be overbearing for employees who have not embraced transformational leadership exercising passive resistance to such a contemporary style of leadership. How to cite Transactional and Transformational Leadership, Essays

Saturday, April 25, 2020

Present Thinking Concepts

Introduction In today’s modern forms of leadership, families, organizations, and governments are working on attaining the set goals or targets for the set period. It is on this background that Leadership has mainly focused on the element of future planning and learning from experiences.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Present Thinking Concepts specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, there has been little emphasis on present thinking where the leader is able to look at exactly what is going on as opposed to his or her expectations and how past challenges were faced (Simpson, French, 2006, p.246). Present thinking puts the leader in a position where although there is temptation to handle a present challenge like a previous one, he or she allows the opportunity of a new thought or solution to guide him/her. Present thinking works together with negative capability, which is a form of leadership requiring pat ience and the need to master frustration and uncertainty (Reason, 1994, p.67). Simpson and French (2006) base their argument on present thinking and negative capability on psychoanalytic theory as put across by Wilfred Bios (p.246). Importance and Implications of Present Thinking Leaders today, more than ever before, are forced to constantly deal with emerging challenges that have caused them to rethink and re-engineer their approaches to business (Johnson, 2011, p.4). They are dealing with the concept of adaptive changes where instead of leading their flock as shepherds, they are exposing to the ‘flock’ to challenges and involving them more in coming up with a solution.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More One of the requirements of the leader to be able to deal with adaptive changes is ‘to sit on the balcony’ (Heifetz, 1997, p.16). The same concept imp lied by present thinking is that, the leader is required to look at the present challenges from a much broader perspective. The leader is able to see the real situation on the ground and then come with corrective and innovative solutions. The attainment of future targets depends on how the leader is able to analyze the actual data and present a situation. It is not wise to only consider past experiences and leave out present thinking when making future targets, which is a critical process in decision-making (Northouse, 2011, p.15). Leaders who take time off their normal work are said to be more productive because the most important aspect of experience is not being involved in the action itself but getting the time and space to think of it. Simpson and French (2006) present an analogy of a child and her mother showing that the mother from her analysis of the baby is able to think on behalf of the child (p.250). This means that, the leader should have the capacity to think on behalf of the organization by analyzing the present situation and make recommendations on the direction taken. Today’s world is marked by performance contracts, target and goals, all of which need to be achieved almost instantly.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Present Thinking Concepts specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, the concept of present thinking in leadership presents a scenario of patience, listening, waiting, and non-interference form of leadership implying that, leaders are not afraid of being in a situation of not knowing and they are out to pursue the truth to make informed decisions. Conclusion The ability to lead by applying present thinking concepts presents a scenario of uncertainty, patience, and not knowing. Therefore, leaders are required to be humble enough to work on themselves, be present in their roles, and use their experience in understanding the state of their organization for be tter management. References Heifetz, R. (2001). The Work of Leadership. Harvard Business Review, 79(11), 15-19. Johnson, C. E. (2011). Meeting the Ethical Challenges of Leadership: Casting Light or  Shadow. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc. Northouse, P. G. (2010). Leadership Theory and Practice (5th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc. Reason, P. (1994). Three Approaches to Participative Inquiry. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc. Simpson, P., French, R. (2006). Negative Capability and the Capacity to Think in the Present Moment: Some Implications for Leadership Practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This essay on Present Thinking Concepts was written and submitted by user Vaughn H. to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

Compare and Contrast the Chinese and Russian Revolutions Essays

Compare and Contrast the Chinese and Russian Revolutions Essays Compare and Contrast the Chinese and Russian Revolutions Paper Compare and Contrast the Chinese and Russian Revolutions Paper China and Russia had various similarities and differences during the early 20th century. They were different in the aspect of goals as Russia was highly concerned in making everyone literate to experience the works of Marx, Lenin and Stalin personally while neither the Chinese communist party nor the Kuomintang cared much about literacy for the masses. Another differences was the characterization of the Russian revolution by World war 1 leading to the revolt against a ruling Tsar while China, was not affected by the war was more of a civil war between the nationalists and Mao’s peasants. Even so, both nations ended up with Communist revolutions, following the proletariat ruling belief. During the early 20th century, the Russian revolutionaries wanted all its people to be literate as to experience by reading the works of Karl Marx, Lenin and Stain first hand. Overall they were very successful in increasing the literacy rate in general. This was possible because immediately after the revolution, education was greatly overhauled in the spending on popular education. Free eduction was ordered for all children from the ages of three to sixteen years old as well as the duplication of schools within the first two years. Coeducation was also imposed as to get rid of sex discrimination and for the welfare of the whole society. However in China, the revolution did not really care about teaching and education for their citizens but rather focused primarily on replacing the existing system of government and its ruler with one headed up by the leader of the revolution, Mao Ze Dong. Another difference between the Russian and Chinese revolution was that the Russian revolution was influenced a lot by the first world war, while the Chinese revolution was untouched by it and still fought for the same beliefs as the Russian revolution. The Russian revolution was highlighted by the overthrow of Nicholas II which was brought on by the end of the first world war. Differently, the Chinese revolution was not affected by the first world war and was sparked by the Marxist ideas of the working class being able to rule. Even though the first world war was not a cause of the revolution, Mao Ze Dong’s peasant army and Chiang Kai’s nationalist army still fought until Mao’s forces defeated the nationalists in 1949. The major similarity between the Russian revolution and the Chinese revolution would be that both revolutions made the path for the nations to become Communists. They were both led by charismatic leaders Lenin and Mao Ze Dong, who were able to unite the people into the revolution. Both had similar goals and outcomes as they both aimed for the working class, Proletariats, to rule against the ruling class. Both revolutions also aimed to establishing a state ownership in their countries as well as removing any kind of inequalities within the nation. Both ending up as communist nations, the Russian revolution and the Chinese revolution were shaped by different sparks and aimed to reach its goals through different methods but strived for a similar goal inspired by the Marxist ideas of the Proletariat class to rule.

Monday, March 2, 2020

Why Americans Once Gave the ‘Bellamy Salute’

Why Americans Once Gave the ‘Bellamy Salute’ The American school children in the picture are showing their loyalty to our flag and country by giving the â€Å"Bellamy Salute† while reciting the Pledge of Allegiance. Despite how it might look, the Bellamy Salute had nothing to do with Nazi dictator Adolph Hitler, but it did cause quite stir many years ago. In fact, the Bellamy Salute is an interesting aside on the history of the Pledge of Allegiance itself. Who Was â€Å"Bellamy?† Francis J. Bellamy actually wrote the original Pledge of Allegiance at the request of Daniel Sharp Ford, owner of a popular Boston-based magazine of the day named the Youth’s Companion. In 1892, Ford began a campaign to place American flags in every classroom in the nation. Ford believed that with the Civil War (1861-1865) still so fresh in the memories of so many Americans, a great public show of patriotism would help stabilize a still fragile nation. Along with the flags, Sharp assigned Bellamy, one of his staff writers at the time, to create a short phrase to be recited to honor the flag and all it stood for. Bellamy’s work, the Pledge of Allegiance to the flag, was published in the Youth’s Companion, and immediately struck a chord with Americans. The first organized use of the Pledge of Allegiance came on Oct. 12, 1892, when some 12 million American school children recited it to commemorate the 400-year anniversary of the voyage of Christopher Columbus. In 1943, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that school administrators or teachers could not force students to recite the Pledge. How it Became Bellamy’s Salute Bellamy and Sharp also felt a physical, non-military style salute should be given to the flag as the Pledge was recited. When the instructions for the salute were printed in the Youth’s Companion under his name, the gesture became known as the Bellamy Salute. The instructions for the Bellamy Salute were simple: When reciting the Pledge, each person was to extend their right arm straight ahead and pointing slightly upward, with their fingers pointing straight ahead or in the direction of the flag, if present. And That Was Fine†¦ Until Americans had no problem with the Bellamy Salute and rendered it proudly until the days before World War II, when Italians and Germans began showing loyalty to dictators Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler with the disturbingly similar â€Å"Heil Hitler!† salute. Americans giving the Bellamy Salute began to fear that they might be mistaken as showing allegiance to the growingly powerful European fascist and Nazi regimes. In his book â€Å"To the Flag: The Unlikely History of the Pledge of Allegiance,† author Richard J. Ellis wrote, â€Å"the similarities in the salute had begun to attract comment as early as the mid-1930s.† Fears also began to grow that the editors of European newspapers and films could easily crop the American flag from pictures of Americans giving the Bellamy Salute, thus giving Europeans the false impression that Americans were beginning to support Hitler and Mussolini. As Ellis wrote in his book, â€Å"the embarrassing resemblance between the ‘Heil Hitler’ salute and the salute that accompanied the Pledge of Allegiance,† stirred fears among many Americans that the Bellamy Salute could be used overseas for pro-fascist propaganda purposes. So Congress Ditched It On December 22, 1942, back in the days when Congress really took care of business, lawmakers passed a bill amending the U.S. Flag Code to mandate that the Pledge of Allegiance should â€Å"be rendered by standing with the right hand over the heart,† exactly like we do it today. Other Changes to the Pledge Besides the demise of the Bellamy Salute in 1942, the exact wording of the Pledge of Allegiance has been changed over the years. For example, the phrase â€Å"I pledge allegiance to the flag,† was original written by Bellamy as â€Å"I pledge allegiance to my flag.† The â€Å"my† was dropped out of concerns that immigrants to the United States, even those who had completed the naturalization process, might be seen as pledging allegiance to the flag of their home nation. The biggest and by far most controversial change came in 1954, when President Dwight D. Eisenhower drove a move to add the words â€Å"under God† after â€Å"one nation.† â€Å"In this way we are reaffirming the transcendence of religious faith in America’s heritage and future; in this way we shall constantly strengthen those spiritual weapons which forever will be our countrys most powerful resource in peace and war,† declared Eisenhower at the time. In June 2002, the 9th Circuit Court of Appeals in San Francisco declared the entire Pledge of Allegiance unconstitutional because of its inclusion of the phrase â€Å"under God.† The court held that the phrase violated the First Amendment’s guarantee of separation of church and state. However, the next day, 9th Circuit Court of Appeals Judge Alfred Goodwin, issued a stay that prevented enforcement of the ruling. So while its wording may change again, you can bet the Bellamy Salute will have no place in the future of the Pledge of Allegiance.

Friday, February 14, 2020

Has the Global Financial Crisis lead to fundamental change in the Essay - 1

Has the Global Financial Crisis lead to fundamental change in the relationship between government and business - Essay Example Business is one segment in which governments made some policy changes in order to strengthen the business activities in a controlled manner. In some sectors governments imposed more restrictions whereas in some other sectors government liberalized the rules and assisted the business people to come out from the recession. For example, governments put more control on the activities of financial institutions like banks whereas they assisted other business entities like the automobile sectors in order to save that sector from total destruction. In other words, the relationship between the government and different business entities has undergone contrasting changes because of recession. This paper analyses the extent of changes happened in relationships between the governments and the business because of recession. The relationship between government and business is important both for the government and the business groups. Governments are primarily operating for safeguarding the interests of the people whereas business always works on making profits. Business always tries to exploit the public resources injudiciously to increase their profits. In other words, the interests of public and business are often contradictory and may not go hand in hand. Governments are fixing the boundaries or the norms in order to reach a compromise between the interests of the people and the interests of business. Government need to protect the interests of both. In order to grow economically, business activities should be increased and for that purpose, more liberalized rules are essential. At the same time, these liberalized rules should never affect the public interest negatively. Thus governments are acting as a bridge between the people and business ensuring that either the people or the business taking any undue advantages. According to the renowned economist John Maynard Keynes, a purely free market system would tend to